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2.   Seeking an Actual Date for Creation

Please Note:

This study builds upon a premise arrived at in the previous chapter, Seeking an Actual Date for the Flood, which examines the legitimacy of, and the results from, treating the Genesis Flood "dates" as valid Gregorian Calendar dates.  The above article is key to the comprehension and credibility of the following article.

Key Points from Seeking an Actual Date for the Flood:
 + Evaluation of competing calendars
+ Genesis "dates", recorded by Moses, had no bearing on Noah
+ "150 Days = five months" unique to Gregorian "2nd - 7th" months
+ Dates, intended for eventual use, were perhaps hidden in plain sight
+ God has full control of history, including calendars
+ Evidence of new moon on 2-1-4990
+ Interesting dayspan intervals

Choosing a Day

We know the Beginning was in 11013 BC.  We also know the first day was a Sunday; but which one?

In the above-mentioned article, the date of the Flood is proposed to be Sunday 2-17-4990 BC, in the proleptic Gregorian calendar (our modern calendar extended back in time).

Our attention will be focused on Sunday, 2-17-11013 BC, a pre-anniversary of the Flood.

These dates share a natural symmetry:

Sun 2-17-11013 BC  Heaven created, waters separated, earth created

Genesis 1:1(b)  ...God created the heaven and the earth. Genesis 1:7 And God ... divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament...

Sun 2-17- 4990 BC  Heaven opened, waters released, earth destroyed

Genesis 7:11(b)  ...all the fountains of the great deep [were] broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.

6023-Year Intersection between Gregorian-count and 365-count

Though not the exact days-per-year of our planet, 365 retains great significance as a number.

The number 365 is inescapably tied to the concept of a year.  Few numbers in the three-digit range are this recognizable.  Even the Bible seems to acknowledge the connection, as Enoch went to be with the Lord after a life of 365 years.

Though true, for whatever reason, God decreed the Earth's orbit slightly longer, giving us a quadrennial 366-day year; 365 remains the perceived reality.

The number 365 is tied to symbolic, innate concepts:

- the concept of year
- the passage of time
- completion of a journey
- end of a time-phase

The Bible itself contains a reference to 365:

Genesis 5:23  And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years

365:  A hidden "key" to verify dates

Hidden within the 365.2425-based Gregorian system, is a repeating rhythm-- between itself, and a concurrently-running 365-count (as if on a calendar without leap years)-- defining a (roughly) 1505-year beat cycle.

We shall see how the fourth repetition of this cycle forms a unique 6023-year link between [Jan/Feb, 11013 BC] and [Jan/Feb, 4990 BC].

As years pass, the insertion of leap days (which are not really extra days; but merely delay-in-counting days) increases the disparity between the two calendars' names for current dates.  Eventually enough leap days are encountered to total a whole year, and the two calendars will briefly regain sync in mm/dd, but will disagree by a whole year.

This occurs roughly every (4 x 365) years; the actual formula is slightly more involved.

Time required for the first extra year to accumulate is given by:

  q x 365.2425 = (q+1) x 365

That is, 

  "How many ('q') Gregorian years = exactly one more '365' year?"

Solve for q:

  365.2425q = 365q + 365
  0.2425q = 365

  q = 365/0.2425

  q = 1505.15464
To find the time required for any number of years to accumulate: substitute the "1" in the formula with the desired number of years.

This 1505-year, 365-vs-365.2425-day pattern is demonstrated by the Bible-calculator's time-converter:

1.  Define year:  Default (Gregorian)
2.  Days box:  Enter 365; press Enter (or click Days)

Here is the readout for the first 1505-year convergence:

1502 years = 548594 days, or 1503 sets of 365 days, -0.77 days
1503 years = 548959 days, or 1504 sets of 365 days, -0.53 days
1504 years = 549324 days, or 1505 sets of 365 days, -0.29 days
1505 years = 549689 days, or 1506 sets of 365 days, -0.04 days
1506 years = 550055 days, or 1507 sets of 365 days, +0.2 days
1507 years = 550420 days, or 1508 sets of 365 days, +0.44 days
1508 years = 550785 days, or 1509 sets of 365 days, +0.68 days
1509 years = 551150 days, or 1510 sets of 365 days, +0.93 days

Two issues arise:  1.) These year-values have a fraction-of-a-day remainder at right, being computed rather than counted; fractional days are not valid in a calendar.  2.) These results are not all 365-divisible; they provide a range that must be checked.

To resolve both issues, and see which months/years are actually 365-divisible, a count must be performed, using two sample dates for each year:  one before March 1, and one after March 1 (the leap-day demarcation).

How does all this help to find a Creation date?

There is a special, rare relationship between the calendars of [Jan/Feb 11013 BC] and [Jan/Feb 4990 BC] that can occur only at ~1505-year intervals.  February of 4990 BC falls into the third of these 1505-year intersections with the number 365, since 11013 BC.

In this two-month window, dates share the same mm/dd values, day-of-week, and have 365-divisibile daycounts.  Both the rarity and the numerical significance suggest an increased likelihood that identical dates in January or February, 6023 years apart-- such as the suggested 2-17 and 2-17-- may bracket both the Creation and the Destruction by flood.

Starting at 11013 BC, and scanning all of history, there are only eight years containing this 1505-year convergence; and out of these 96 months, only 50 also have shared weekdays with 11013:


 9509 BC:  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

 7998 BC:   -   -  Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

 6494 BC:  Jan Feb  -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -  

 4990 BC:  Jan Feb  -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   - 

 3486 BC:  Jan Feb  -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   - 

 1982 BC:  Jan Feb  -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   - 

  471 BC:   -   -  Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

 1034 AD:   -   -  Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

If we narrow our focus to February 11013, only the BC years 9509, 6494, 4990, 3486, and 1982 have dates in February with daycounts divisible by 365 and which share the same weekday.

The odds of choosing one of these five anniversary years at random, out of 13023 numbered years (not counting 11013), are:


      = 1 in (13023/5)

      = 1 in 2604

Competing definitions of year-length-- such as Mean Tropical (365.24218967), Mean Tropical Rounded (365.2422), Julian Average (365.25), or Sidereal (365.256363051)-- fail to register the 6023-year alignment.

The closest any reaches (365.2422) is 6024 years, a span we can reject due to our confidence in the 6023-year interval from Creation to Flood.

Of all these nearly identical values, only the Gregorian (365.2425) produces this 365-centered harmony.

The 2,200,000-Day Interval

If Sunday 2-17-11013 BC was "the First Day", then the creation of Man would have occurred on Friday 2-22-11013, "the Sixth Day".

Starting here at Day Six, and going forward in time 2,200,000 days, we arrive at 7-17-4990 BC.  This would be the seventeenth day of the seventh month (Genesis 8:4), the end of the 150-day period when "the waters prevailed upon the earth" (Genesis 7:24) to destroy man.  Although every living thing might easily have died before this day, the waters-- expressing God's anger-- prevailed until some full measure of punishment was reached on day 150.  On this day the waters were finally abated and the ark rested (Genesis 8:3,4).  (For an untangling of Flood events, see Assigning Dates to All Flood Events on this website.)

Regarding the 2,200,000 days:  A case can be built for the number 22 signifying God's wrath being satisfied.  In this case, 22 is multiplied by 100,000. For perspective on the rarity of 100,000-day intervals, know that they occur only every 273 years.  A study by the same author, The Number 22, also appears on this website.

Moon Created Full?

The Moon was created on the Fourth Day:

Genesis 1:14-19  (Day Four)

14  And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
15  And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth:  and it was so.
16  And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night:  he made the stars also.
17  And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,
18  And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness:  and God saw that it was good.
19  And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

It can be shown with reasonable confidence that there was a full moon on 2-20-11013 BC-- the Fourth Day, if 2-17-11013 was the First Day.  The validity of this claim is demonstrated elsewhere on this website:  Lunar Motion and Data > Moonphase for 2-20-11013 BC.

As the Moon orbits the Earth, its daily rate of progress is only about 12 degrees.  If the lunar orbit were a giant clock dial, the Moon would progress only about two minutes on that dial per day.  (counter-clockwise)

So the position where the newly fashioned Moon was first placed, would basically be the place it would inhabit that whole first day.

Reasons to Expect an Initially-Full Moon

1.  It would serve to frame a Creation Day candidate, such as 2-17, with increased certainty.

2.  An initially full Moon would instantly demonstrate the full glory and purpose God intended for it:

16  And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night....

3.  Careful reading of Genesis 1:14-19 hints that it immediately began serving as the light source God intended:

15  And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

14 ...Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven...

The Full Moon is Unique Among Moon-Phases

While obviously brighter than other nights, there are two hidden factors that enhance the full Moon's illuminating power greatly, even over the nights preceding and following:  At full-moon, the initial light source (the Sun) is directly behind us, throwing its light over our shoulder, as it were, onto the Moon.  As a result of this alignment, two things happen:

1.  "When we look at a full moon, we don’t see any shadows since the sunlight is coming from pretty much our direction.  When we look at a first quarter moon, the light is coming in from the side and there are lots of shadows.  So for any given area of the surface, we’re seeing less of it illuminated than we would when the light is more direct.  (It turns out that effect happens on more than one level:  not only are there shadows from major features like mountains and crater walls, but also on a much smaller scale in the way the light is reflected from the top few millimeters of the lunar regolith, the deep fine powder that covers the moon.)"  [1]

2.  "Some people also claim that there’s an effect from millions of tiny glass beads in the lunar regolith, formed from millions of meteor impacts.  These glass beads act like retro reflectors, reflecting most of the light that hits them back in the direction it came from."  [2]

Were the Moon a large smooth spere, with no such contours or glass beads, there would be an expected two- to threefold increase in reflectivity (brightness), from one of the quarters (half-lit), to the full Moon.  Yet the actual increase in brightness is closer to 14 times, with perhaps 40% of this increase occuring between [full] and [night before or after].  [3]

Creation lag-time fits Full-Moon-Cycle

It has been suggested in these studies that our currently-used Gregorian calendar may have been intended as the tool to connect the Genesis Flood "dates" to other Biblical dates, with  to-the-day  precision.

Also suggested is that if God did plan this, He may have arranged confirming signs, such as:

- A harmonious structure of dayspans (2,2000,000, etc.)

- Signs within the calendar itself (the 3655-day/1505-year pattern)

- Events with hidden intervals to
benchmark dates, pointing to the calendar itself

Further still, there may also be confirming signs with the only celestial body not connected to the Gregorian mechanism:  the Moon.

- A possible new moon to mark the Flood monnth  (covered in companion study)

- Signs the Moon was created full  (covered above)

- Time dimensions of the Full Moon Cyclee  (immediately below)

The Full-Moon Cycle

Specifically, we are interested in an obscure lunar period known as the Full-Moon Cycle (here abbreviated as FMC).

We have focused on 2-17 as the possible date when Creation began.  Admittedly, this date sounds random.  Also seemingly random is the FMC duration of 411.78443029 days.

Yet together, these numbers produce a noteworthy time interval that seems not-so-random.

The FMC (roughly 1+1/8 years) is the period required for the Moon's elliptical orbit to circle the Sun until the exact same part of the ellipse is again facing the Sun.  Or essentially, the time required for the elliptical lunar orbit and the Sun to circle each other.

The Full Moon Cycle pictured here begins January 1 (blue year) and runs approximately to February 17 (gold year), ~412 days later.

The start-date was chosen for simplicity of illustration; the cycle may begin at any time, on any day.

The red circle is the orbital path of the Earth-Moon System around the Sun (center).

The three blue earths and the two gold earths depict the locations described in the following graphic.

(The Moon itself is not depicted)

The Earth-Moon system, shown through one Full Moon Cycle, at the four-month intervals plotted in the above graphic.

After ~412 days, the Moon's elliptical orbit and the Sun resume the same orientation to each other-- in this case, with one end of the ellipse's axis (blue line) pointing toward the Sun.

A slight precession (rotation; discussed below) of this ellipse's orientation delays this re-alignment from ~365 days to ~412 days.

When compared to a 365-day year, the FMC is longer by ~46.78 days:

Full Moon Cycle    411.78443029

Common Year      - 365


Why the difference?  Imagine the ellipse is pointed at the Sun, as though "looking" right at it.  After one counter-clockwise lap, it has shifted its gaze slightly to the left of the Sun (precessed slightly counter-clockwise)... requiring it to travel a little further to "see" it.  The lap is the year; the little-bit-further is the ~46.78 days.

The date 2-17 is 47 days from 1-1.  And because The First Day was an "evening-morning", the day properly began at on the Gregorian timeline at ~6:00 PM (sunset) on 2-16-11013 BC, narrowing the interval by a quarter-day to ~46.75 days.

When asking "which direction to shift the day when converting", consider:  The shift from [standard day] to [evening-morning] is only six hours, if one combines each day with the evening before; as opposed to an 18-hour shift the other way.

Back to the Full Moon Cycle-- something of little interest to anyone not an astronomer predicting eclipses:

Starting at sunset on 2-16-11013, and turning the clock back (hypothetically) exactly one FMC (~411.78 days), one arrives at the start (12:01 AM) of 1-1, the previous year... to within an hour or so.

There are 9883 hours in a Full Moon Cycle, which argues against coincidence.  This would seem to bolster the selection of 2-17 as Day One, and shed light on the "Creation lag-time"; perhaps dissolving some of our concerns that "2-17 is an odd starting point; why not 1-1? ".

As an aside, and perhaps not a minor one, it is noted that a similar FMC-phase stretches from 2-16 (sunset) in Year A, to [mid-day] on 4-3 (noon, Resurrection day), in Year B... provided that either Year A or B is a leap-year.

The following are valid examples of such:

|  12:01 AM   |         | 6:50 PM    |         | 1:40 PM |
|             | < FMC > |            | < FMC > |         |
|1-1-11014 BC*|         |2-16-11013**|         |4-3-11012|

|  12:01 AM   |         | 6:50 PM    |         | 1:40 PM |
|             | < FMC > |            | < FMC > |         |
| 1-1-31 AD***|         |2-16-32 AD**|         |4-3-33 AD|
   * Hypothetical date before start of time in 11013 BC
   ** Leap-year
   *** 1-1-31 Is the decade-starting
benchmark date before the Crucifixion and Resurrection.

1472 Precessions of Moon's elliptical orbit    ( 4,756,797 days )

The previous section on the Full Moon Cycle introduced us to the fact that the Moon's orbit around the Earth is not a perfect circle, but slightly elliptical (oval) in shape; and that this ellipse undergoes a gradual precession, or rotation.

   elliptical shape exaggerated for clarity

Over time, this mild precession accumulates to a full 360o, regaining the starting orientation, and pointing the ellipse in the same direction*.
* relative to the stars, our only fixed reference points

One complete precession of the Moon's orbit requires ~3231.5 days; this was calculated by using the full-moon-cycle (FMC; explained above) and Gregorian year length (discussed on the Year Types page on this site).

1472 Cycles:  Seemingly not a random number

The dayspan from (proposed) Creation to final Destruction can be shown to accomodate precisely 1472 of these ~8.85-year precession cycles.

The prime factors of 1472 are of special interest.
Catalog of spiritually significant numbers and their associated themes

     1472  =  2^6   x   23

           =  2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2   x   23

1.  Calculation of cycle-length

The precise value of this cycle, in days, is obtained as follows:

1.  Find the difference in arc between 
    Gregorian year and Full Moon Cycle (slightly longer):

    a.  Find the difference in period of each:

        Full moon cycle        411.78443029  days

             Earth year      - 365.2425     
             difference         46.54193029  days

    b.  Find arc swept in  46.54193029 days:

          Days travelled past
             one-year mark              arc
        ______________________    =    _____

        Length of year in days          360

        46.54193029          arc
        ___________    =    _____

         365.2425            360

        Cross-multiply, then divide, to find arc:

        46.54193029  x  360  /  365.2425 =  



      Difference in arc, Gregorian year and Full Moon Cycle  =

      45.873891741514199470214994147724 degrees

2.  Find the number of FMCs that must transpire
    to accumulate 360 degrees rotation of the
    Moon's elliptical orbit (precession period):

    In other words, how many times does: 
      45.873891741514199470214994147724 into 360?



      =  7.84760102823831546759853994874  FMCs

    x  411.78443029  days  (1 FMC)

    = 3231.5199185563329371743597272277  days

2.  The precise fit of 1472 cycles

The days from 2-17-11013 BC (projected Creation:  Day One) to 10-21-2011 (anticipated Destruction) add up to 4,756,800 days.  The very nearly matches 1472 lunar-orbit-precessions:

    x    1472

    = 4756797.3201149220835206575184792  days

There are sufficient digits after the decimal in our FMC value (411.78443029 days) to insure its accuracy in achieving this daycount.

When an artificial digit  ( 5;  the maximum rounding error) is placed after the last digit in our FMC value:  [411.784430295 days], the result changes the ~4756797.32 dayspan by only 0.00432 seconds.

Assuming then that our numbers are sound, how do we account for this difference of nearly three days?

Remember, there were three days in the beginning when the Moon was not yet formed.  Could this ~4756797.32-day interval be not an expression of the entire span of Time, but more fittingly, the exact length of the Moon's existence?

The daycount from Creation to anticipated Destruction, as proposed here, is 4756799 (not incl).  Where can the 4756797.32 dayspan fit in, if the Moon was created some time on Day Four, and is to face destruction on 10-21-2011?

Earliest Moon could be created: Sundown, 2-19-11013 
                                (Biblical start of Day Four)

Latest Moon can be doomed:  11:59 PM, 10-21-2011

Find window:

Add 1.  Daycount from  [12:01 AM on 2-20-11013]  

                     to  [12:01 AM on 10-21-2011] (not incl)

          (12:01 used for clarity:  actually 12:00)

      2.  ~6 hours on 2-16-11013

      3.  24 (23:59) hours on 10-21-2011 (the "inclusive" day)

      1.    4756796.0    days

      2.          0.25

      3.    +     1.0 
         = 4756797.25   days

This value is 0.07 days over the duration of the 1472 lunar-orbit-precessions.  This difference of [1 hr 41 min] may be within the estimation-error-margin between estimated sunset (6:PM) and actual sunset at the start of Day Four.

Nonetheless, the ~3231 days between precessions is a distant 8.85 years-- thus an hour or two difference is minimal in this span of  77,556 hours.

Yet intriguingly, there is a seemingly plausible accounting for this extra time:

These two hours (roughly) could be explained as the waiting period from day's end (midnight) in Jerusalem, to the arrival of midnight (day's end) at the prime meridian (Greenwich Mean Time), two time zones to the west, in England.

This would be an almost expexted consequence, had God-- as suggested in this book-- made the switch from Hebrew to Gregorian time systems in these latter times, as GMT is the "zero" time-reference point for the world.

Seventeen,   7000,   and the Full Moon Cycle

The numbers 17 and 7000 are expressly involved in God's plan for the world:

The calendar of history involves a 7000-year span from the year of the Flood to the year of final Destruction.

The Flood hit on "the seventeenth day".  While the elements of a date are not routinely open for numerical analysis, in this case the wording is from the Bible itself.

Hidden within the timing of the Full Moon Cycle (explained above) is a gearing of 17 such cycles to every 7000 solar days:

Full moon cycle:    411.78443029 days

                  x  17.0

                   7000.33531493 days
An internet search for any mention of this  17 : 7000  ratio yielded no results.  Perhaps the numerical significance of 17 and 7000 is lacking to all but the Bible student.

Yet harmonious relationships between celestial cycles, being of rare instance, are not typically ignored by astronomers.  Other similar gearings are quite well-known, such as:

[19 tropical years] ~= [235 synodic months]

[102 Full Moon Cycles] ~= [115 years]

Creation Destruction:   4,756,800  Days

[  2-17-11013 BC  ]   to   [ 10-21-2011 AD ]
[ Creation begins ]        [ Destruction?  ]

  =  4,756,800 days (incl * )

  =  10^2  x  2^4  x  3  x  991

  =  4800  x  991

  =  2400  x  1982

* "Inclusive" (the counting of one extra, to encompass both start and end points) is highly appropriate here, as one is interested in the total number of days that would exist (4,756,800), a number 1 higher than the dayspan (4,756,799).

The Factor 1982

The divisor 1982 is 1/2400 of 4,756,800 days.  It seems to bear significance concerning Christ, in at least two ways:

1.  The time from Christ's appearance as Savior, until His return at the end of the world, is 1982 years.  Essentially, this is the length of His saving ministry on the earth.

  2011 AD  Anticipated End of world [10-21]
 -  29 AD  Jesus announced as Lamb of God [9-25]
 =   1982  years

2.  The time from Christ first teaching in the temple, to His spirit leaving the churches, is also 1982 years (inclusive), comprising the period when:

"I [Jesus] sat daily with you teaching in the temple" (Matthew 26:55)
"the time that the daily sacrifice [Jesus?]  shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up" (Daniel 12:11).

  1988 AD  End of Church Age [5-21] / Great tribulation begins
 -   7 AD  12+1/2-yr old Jesus found in temple at Passover
 =   1982  years (inclusive)

For either of these 1982-year timespans, the following applies:

Counting  2400   days...
  for each year:  Christ was known as Savior on earth
  for each year:  Christ was teaching in congregations (inclusive)

  ...produces  1982 x 2400 days = 4,756,800 days

...which matches the days from:
    [proposed Creation on 2-17-11013 BC]   to   [Destruction? on 10-21-2011 AD]

Also, regarding the yearspan [29 AD - 2011]:  An interesting day-span exists between two significant dates within those years:

      9-25-  29 AD  (Baptism of Jesus)
 to   2-17-2011 AD  (Proposed 7000th Flood anniversary)
    =    723690 days (not incl.) = 10 x 9 x 11 x 17 x 43

                                 = 10 x 11 x 43 x 153

The Prime Factor 991

As for the prime divisor 991:  it may seem insignificant, until expressed as:

991  =  1000 - 9
That is,  991  is  9  short of  1000.   Alternatively,

991 + 9  =  1000

There is an interesting timeline involving the  991 : 9  ratio:
                                               Israel    End of 
                          Flood                reborn    world?
                          4990                 1948      2011
                          =====                =====     ===== 
                            |                     |        |    
   991 x 7  =  6937  years: |------6937 yrs-------|        |
+    9 x 7  =    63  years: |                     |-63 yrs-| 
= 1000 x 7  =  7000  years: |-----------7000 yrs-----------|

First Week Final Week

This example utilizes the date 1-1-2011, which we shall call a "benchmark date"–  a concept further demonstrated in the follow-up to this study,  Further Validation of Gregorian Dating.

A benchmark date is basically a date that denotes the [beginning or end] of a [millennia, century, decade, or year] that contains the key-date.  Hence 12-31 and 1-1 are the two possible benchmark dates in the Gregorian system.

The following tidy fit with 1-1-2011 serves the dual function of reinforcing both:

1) the selection of [2-17-11013 BC] as Day 1; and

2) the validity of Gregorian dating.

[2-23-11013 BC Sat] to [1- 1-2011 AD Sat] = 4756500 days

[1- 1- 2011 AD Sat] to [5-21-2011 AD Sat] =     140 days 

...from which we derive the following:

End of Creation week: Sat. 2-23-11013 = 1st Day of rest
End of 679,500 more wks: Sat. 1- 1- 2011 = 1st Day of last year
End of 20 more weeks: Sat. 5-21- 2011 = Last day to find rest

John O'Leary,

[1]  ^  "How Bright is the Moon? or Neptune?" by Akkana Peck, SJAA Ephemeris June 2008, San Jose Astronomical Association,

[2]  ^  "How Bright is the Moon? or Neptune?" by Akkana Peck, SJAA Ephemeris June 2008, San Jose Astronomical Association,

[3]  ^  "Retro-Reflection phenomena > Retro-Reflectivity on the moon > Lunar Retro-reflectivity Observed from Earth" (glossary entry),